Dogs and Puppies Health

Various Dogs and Puppies Diseases


Dogs are generally beautiful species of animals. The younger versions of dogs are called puppies. They tend to be Cute, lively, adorable and small as possible. Unfortunately, most puppies tend to battle with one health problem or another. They are generally susceptible to diseases more than dogs.

It is imperative to know about a dog/puppy health life whether you are planning to adopt one for a short or long term. The more you know the risks involved, the better you stand to give your sick buddy the best of health it needs.

 There are various health issues or diseases associated with dogs and puppies. Some are written and explained below:

i. Protozoa Infections

Protozoa infections in dogs are often seen in puppies and dogs not older than 2years with inhibited immune systems that are in close relation with one another. Some diseases are zoonotic, which implies that the infection can be transmitted quickly to a human.

There are several sources of the protozoa infection which are as follows; drinking of contaminated water, ingesting or coming in contact with infected feces, etc. when these come in connection with the furs of the dog, it starts growing and spreading through the placenta till it engulfs its system.


Protozoan can be said to be sets of a unicellular organism that are transmitted through the bite of insects or ants that are already infected. It can also be contacted through the intake of the parasite.  

Giardiasis is an intestinal infection that happens as a result of protozoan giardia present in dogs. When it stays long in the system of a dog, it damages the gastrointestinal tract and gives rise to problems of dyspepsia and malnutrition. In the early stages of the infection, the laniary may have no signs, as the infection advances, it may include: Weight loss, diarrhea, Weakness, a Poor smell in feces, etc.

Giardiasis is treated mostly with the combination of antibiotic drugs (Flagyl) and deworming medicine like fenbendazole. Veterinary doctors prescribe particular medications for puppies with severe diarrhea or nausea.

Another intestinal infection is called Coccidia. They are very tiny parasites that cause disease in dogs called Coccidiosis. Like Giardiasis, dogs may have this parasite and not show the symptoms early until it gets fatal and too much for them to handle. A puppy or dog should be tested the moment they start having watery diarrhea mixed with mucus and water. If left unattended to, Coccidiosis cases may turn up to be fatal.


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ii. Virus diseases

Canine Parvovirus is one of the viral infections that affect dogs. The virus transforms itself into various forms. The most common is the intestinal form, which can be identified as symptoms of weight loss, loss of appetite, diarrhea, and vomiting. The less known one is cardiac. It affects the heart muscles of puppies, and it often leads to their deaths. It is often seen in puppies between six weeks and half a year.

Symptoms include sluggishness, fever, severe weight loss and diarrhea.

The majority of cases are apparent in puppies that are between six weeks and six months old. It can be treated and eliminated early through early vaccination.

Distemper is another common viral infection that can be found in dogs. This infection has a root in human measles virus, and just like Parvo, is notoriously contagious. Young puppies and senior dogs are more prone to distemper, but any dog that has not been vaccinated effectively can catch it.

Some common symptoms of distemper include loss of appetite, mild fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and discharge from the nose and eyes.

If adequate attention is not given to the affected drug, it could lead to seizures and become fatal as time goes on.

iii. Cancer

Like a human being, dogs also face the painful and horrible experience of having this disease. Cancer in dogs is as a result of an untamed growth of cells in their body. These cells can arise in any tissue in the body. If care is not administered on time, cancer can spread and join the circulatory or lymph systems, and can also expand and affect other tissues in the body. Cancer has been the main reason for the deaths of dogs aged 10 or more over the years. Although, most of the tumors in dogs can be controlled and treated if diagnosed on time.

We have different types of cancers, part of which are:

      a. Hemangiosarcoma: This is a kind of disease that doesn't have any cure that lines blood vessels, called endothelial cells. Though dogs of any age can contact hemangiosarcoma, it happens to middle age or elderly dogs often.

      b. Lymphoma: This kind of dog cancer can affect any dog of any age group. Often, it comes in the form of a swollen gland (lymph node) that is visible under the neck, in front of the shoulder or behind its knee.

Other cancer types in dogs include brain tumor, osteosarcoma, bladder cancer, mammary carcinoma, melanoma, testicular, mouth and nose cancer, squamous cell carcinomas, etc.

Cancer in dogs is contacted through various ways. The most common ones are highlighted below:

A. Advanced Age: old age is a factor that gives rise to cancer in dogs. Though, there are no facts yet that states explicitly the primary cause of cancer, research has shown on the hand that old age increases the chance contractingcancer. Although investigations are still ongoing, it has been established thatas the body ages, so is its ability to fight off diseases.  

A weak immune system is most likely to create a mutated cell when it breaks, paving the way for uncontrollable development. Also, we have so many dangerous chemical elements in our environment that are linked to cancer, and the higher the age of a dog, the higher the chance of it being exposed to this danger, which often leads to cancer.

B. Elements of the environment:  Studies have shown that there are various substances that are linked to cancer. For example, a smoker who smokes unapologetically around where pets are kept is likely to endanger them. Pollution and smog also affect dogs a lot pretty the same way it affects people. Another usual cause of cancer for dogs is ultraviolet radiation.  

Furthermore, we have numerous chemicals that are used in improving agriculture like herbicides, pesticides, and insecticides that are very harmful to dogs and can be a cause of cancer.

C. Genetics : Although all dogs have an equal risk of having cancer, there are some breeds of dogs that are more prone to it.  

Big dogs like German Shepherds, Boxers, Golden Retrievers, Great Danes, Bulldogs, French Bulldogs and other large or giant breeds of dogs are more likely to be infected with cancer. Likewise, a dog's physical setup could affect their chance of having cancer. For example, Dogs with thin coats or solid colors are at a very high risk of developing mast cell tumors which can lead to cancer.


Signs of cancer are as follows: Swelling abdomen, open wounds or sores, sudden and permanent weight loss, Appetite changes, Coughing or difficulty in breathing, depression, and General Pains.

Cancer treatments in dogs tend to take the same way as the human treatment which includes different therapies like radiotherapy, chemotherapy, surgery and herbal or alternative medicine.

There are several factors to take in consideration while treating a dog with cancer, part of which are age, general well-being of the dog, cancer stage, and tumor type.


 iv. Bacteria 

Bacteria are visible in our everyday life. Some cause disease while some don't have enough power to trouble us with the disease. Our pets are always at the risk of contracting bacterial diseases even though their immune systems fight valiantly mostly to ward off any threats successfully. Bacteria disease comes up as a result of a weakened immune system, which comes as a result of which it takes advantage of to spread its reach all through the dog's system.

A weakened immune system is always as a result of many factors which include insufficient calories, use of steroid drugs, antibiotics, hormonal inconsistencies, virus and diseases like renal failure, diabetes, erythematosus, and neoplasia.

A weakened immune system makes the dog incapable of fighting bacteria or viral infections, and also makes it prone to some health challenges which then pave the way for cancer and other health situations to come in.

However, there are ways to improve the immune system of your dogs. It can be through feeding them the right foods, massaging them well, teaching positive energy around them, trying as much as possible to steer them away from vaccinations, worm medications, drugs, tick products and topical flea.

We have different types of bacterial diseases in dogs, some of which are:

Salmonella, Leptospirosis, Campylobacter, Helicobacter, Streptococcus, Clostridia, Bordetella, and E Coli.

The origin of bacteria is usually through water, feces, uncooked meat, and dairy. This type of disease is common in dogs that hunt a lot or spend more time in boarding kennels where more dogs live in the same area. Puppies have a very high risk of getting this disease because their immune system is not as robust as the ones of adults.

 Digestive problems and vomiting are inherent in dogs that have issues of bacterial infections, in addition to crankiness and sluggishness. They can also be a source of transfusion to humans through germs caught from touching them.

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v. Fungal Infections

Fungi or funguses are parasitic organisms that create spores in dogs. For them to get a right food combination, they draw food from their prey or hosts. There are various species of fungus, though only a tiny few give infections.

The soil is the primary source for most infections, and the dogs mostly contact it through inhaling, ingestion or through an open wound in their skin.

 There are different types of fungal infections, some that can affect good dogs and some need dogs with weak immune systems for them to cement the contamination. Some infections happen as a result of dogs using antimicrobial drugs or immune weakening agents that effect in the long term.

There are several forms of fungal infections, part of which are Sporotrichosis, Candidiasis, Cryptococcosis, Histoplasmosis, Aspergillosis, Coccidioidomycosis, Geotrichosis, Mycetomas, North American Blastomycosis, Phaeohyphomycosis, Pythiosis, Lagenidiosis and Rhinosporidiosis.

There are different ways in which the infections can be treated. Veterinarian most likely will advocate long-term treatment, which implies that the dog will be taking antibiotics up to three or four weeks after the prior diagnosis of the disease.


vi. Poisoning and overdose

Poisoning may occur as a result of a dog ingesting contaminated food or chemical. A dog can be poisoned through taking in of substances like toxic liquids, rodenticides, chemicals, and bad foods or prescribed medications for humans. Poisoning can also be as a result of a pet being overexposed to the scent of chemicals used either in medicine, feeds or environmental controls. In a situation of poisoning, a pet owner should try as much as possible to have a clear mind and take fast productive actions to save his pet.

 Some Symptoms of poisoning in drugs include diarrhea, vomiting, sluggishness or pale face, Coughing, sneezing, Dilated pupils, Tremors, involuntary muscle spasms and convulsions, Nervousness, Dizziness, Muscle stiffness, Disorientation, and Paralysis of any affected area or whole body.

As soon as we detect some of these symptoms, it is advisable to act fast and summon an emergency service veterinary.


vii. Behavioral problems

Dogs also may have varying degrees of behavioral issues like a human that requires corrective measures to control. Some symptoms of behavioral problems include overreacting, excessive tail shaking, oversleeping, sluggishness, the excessive chasing of people, etc.

The behavioral disorder can be treated by taking prescribed advice from a veterinarian.


viii. Environmental Disorder

Sensitivity to anesthesia can occur in any gender, but sighthounds have been the most attested to have anesthetic worries. Sighthounds are known to have extended times of recovery from ultra short-acting thiobarbiturates like thiopental.

Heat stroke can happen in dogs, especially in flat-faced breeds like the giant breeds or bulldogs. Race, low water, exercise, and high-temperature predispose dogs to heat stroke. Signs are vomiting, diarrhea, collapse, difficulty breathing, and body temperature approaching 42 °C to 43 °C. It can be treated through cooling of dogs with a wet towel and enough breezes, intravenous therapy, and other additional care.

ix. Miscellaneous

Vestibular infections or diseases are a set of different situations in matured dogs. Most cases are idiopathic, but can also be as a result of otitis interna, or tumors, encephalitis and inner ear infections. Symptoms include vomiting, many fall, head swing, and nystagmus. This type of disease mostly disappears between three days and one week.

Another example of miscellaneous is molera, also known as an open fontanelle. It could be a sign of hydrocephalus, but it is also okay in breeds like Chihuahua.

Anal gland situations are very usual and may involve impaction, infection or abscessation. They are usually emptied when the dog defecates.